Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settlement made by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, on the banks of the St. Charles. In 1608 Champlain founded the city of Quebec, almost on the spot where Jacques Cartier had wintered; the country ceded to Great Britain by France, by the treaty of Paris, 1763; civil government provided by Quebec Act, 1774; and a measure of responsible government by the Constitutional Act, 1791; invasion by Americans, 1775-1776; War of 1812; Rebellions of 1837-1838, in Upper and Lower Canada; union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1841; Confederation of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, 1867; Manitoba added to the Dominion, 1870; British Columbia, 1871; Prince Edward Island, 1873; provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta created, 1905.
   Index: Dr Surrender of, 2; under military rule till conclusion of peace, 2; acquisition of, by Britain, hastened American Revolution, 3; ceded by treaty of Paris to Great Britain, 7; its wide extent at that time, 8; French population of, at cession, 9; English-speaking population, 9; petition for restoration of its ancient limits, 61; division of, into two provinces proposed, 248; political possibilities after conquest, 253-257; boundaries of, not defined by Constitutional Act, 260. B Party government--origin of the double ministries, 81-82; election frauds in 1857, 99-100; process of expansion--Confederation and after, 264. E First railway in, 99; early political conditions in, 17-40; difficulties connected with responsible government in, 26; principles of responsible government, 228; her political system contrasted with that of United States, 241 et seq. WM Interests French commanders and their men but little, 11; its vulnerable points, 17; its strong social and political organization gave it an advantage in war, 24; but was unfavourable to internal development, 24. Sy Rapid progress made in Anglicizing previous to passing of Quebec Act, 63; unfortunate change of policy regarding, 64. F Population of, 36, 55, 58, 131, 147, 148; poverty of impresses Sister Bourgeoys, 39; morals of the people, 58, 59; overgoverned, 131; trade, 148; affected by all the vicissitudes of mother country, 150, 151; "farmers" of revenue appointed for, 154; Bishop St. Vallier's first description of country and inhabitants, 192; Governor Denonville's description, 192; St. Vallier's revised opinion, 193; real character of the people, 193-195; state of depression throughout the country, 219, 240; drinking habits of people, 223; described by Laval as the country of miracles, 301; exhaustion of, after departure of New England fleet, 305, 317.

The makers of Canada. 2014.

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